Trusted by 10,000+ Scientists Since 2002. View Our 5-Star Google Review, Select Citations and 4,000+ Citations at Google Scholar.

5 Factors to Know About Antibody Production

Sep 9th 2022

5 Factors to Know About Antibody Production

5 Factors to Know About Antibody Production

Antibodies are the mass proteins produced as a reaction to an entry of foreign bodies into the body. This body's natural reaction to harvest antibodies can be connected to producing custom antibodies for specific diseases. Peptide synthesis companies widely use them in research to identify target proteins in different applications because of their alignment to an epitome.

Custom antibodies provide greater sensitivity and selectivity than regular cultured antibodies. Usually, these antibodies are relatively easy to produce. However, some factors can affect antibody production and make the process difficult. This article analyzes custom antibody production and factors that influence the process.

The custom antibody market comprises pharmaceutical, biotechnology, academic, and research institutes. Pharmaceuticals and biotechnology account for the largest share of the custom antibody market. This has been seen with the increasing demand for high-specific antibodies for drug discovery and development.

The production of custom antibodies is essential when dealing with a rare antigen. However, producing custom antibodies is a demanding and time-consuming process. Some intrinsic host factors can determine how antibodies are produced. Here is everything you need to know about antibody production.

Antibody Production

1. Choose the ideal antibody to produce

Antibodies can be classified into monoclonal, polyclonal, recombinant, and other custom antibodies. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies are some of the biggest selling therapeutics. On the other hand, recombinant antibodies are easy to mass-produce in a shorter time frame without using animals. They develop from a unique set of genes.

The custom antibody market is segmented into mice, rabbits, and other sources. Mice account for the largest share of a custom antibody market as the preferred host for research-use antibody production. They are easy to maintain and handle due to their small size.

Monoclonal antibodies

Monoclonal antibodies are relatively more homogenous and comprise significant batch-to-batch stability. These are the antibodies secreted by a single clone of B lymphocytes. They recognize only one episode of an antigen compared to polyclonal antibodies that recognize multiple epitopes. The monoclonal antibodies are isolated from B-cell clones and require minimal protein purification service.

Monoclonal antibodies account for the largest share of the custom antibody market. This is because they provide high specificity and sensitivity compared to other antibodies. Most research studies prefer monoclonal antibodies for their research.

Polyclonal antibodies

The antibodies produced by a mixture of various B-lymphocyte clones are known as polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies have a broader specificity and recognize multiple epitopes. Hence, they are less sensitive to minor antigen changes and can identify proteins of high homology. Polyclonal antibodies are relatively easy to produce and less complex. You can produce them in several species, such as mice, rabbits, or chickens, giving you more options in experimental design.

Polyclonal antibody production focuses on immunizing animals using different immune cells. Distinct plasma b-cell clones produce polyclonal antibodies without using the hybridoma cell lines. This process follows simple steps from antigen preparation, immunization, and protein expression and purification services.

You need to differentiate between using monoclonal over polyclonal antibodies in research. The choice between monoclonal or polyclonal antibodies in an antibody production procedure depends on several factors. For example, you can base the decision on a specific project's timescale and whether the cell lines are already available.

2. Understand how to produce quality antibodies

Custom antibodies are beneficial for research and clinical analysis. They are applied in performing bioanalysis of drugs and biological systems. Custom antibodies' high specificity and sensitivity for unique protein targets make them ideal for medical applications like diagnostic and therapeutic use.

Understanding antibody specificity and sensitivity are essential when choosing an antibody to support your research. Choose an antibody that can recognize the protein without cross-reacting with other family members. Antibody sensitivity helps understand the antigen target.

Most clients value the potential for producing consistent antibodies at workable timescales. Perform due diligence in picking antibodies to use in the procedure to ensure you produce high-quality yields. Without due diligence, women produce antibodies that are not good enough to satisfy client demands.

A quality antibody detests its intended target in a particular assay. It is consistent from one experiment to another. Since complex antibodies, poor-quality antibodies can interfere with the entire production procedure. Using poor antibody quality can also produce substandard data with correlated scientific repercussions.

When choosing the antibody for custom protein synthesis, consider factors like sensitivity, specificity, and functionality to detect the intended target in a complex mixture. Quality antibodies are strong enough to contribute to the intended outcome. Poor quality antibodies are not specific enough and cannot detect the intended target.

Quality antibody production is an essential determining factor in custom protein expression. When choosing an expression system for production, consider several factors, such as desired yield, protein type, and functional activity requirement. Also, learn how to use Elisa kits from Elisa kit manufacturers to optimize antibody production services.

Antibody Sequencing Services

3. Determine the types of antibody production

There are different types of antibody production: natural antibody production and adaptive antibody production. These methods are essential in preventing diseases such as inflammation and some specific cancers.

Natural antibody production

Natural antibodies are the first line of defense against pathogens and serve an essential role in custom antibody services. Compared to adaptive antibodies, natural antibodies are germ-free and specific to particular antibodies. The human body produces natural antibodies when exposed to foreign pathogens. The antibodies are made from the B1-lymphocytes or the marginal Zone B cells. The unique feature of natural antibodies compared to the adaptive versions is the poly-reactivity and moderate antimicrobial activity.

The natural antibodies produced in humans are immunoglobulin (IgM) and its isotopes natural antibody production. Hence, the natural antigens developed in the human body comprise immunoglobulin and its isotopes. Antibodies are characterized by polyreactivity, autoreactivity, high acidity levels, and moderate antimicrobial activity. While the natural antibodies dominate only 1% of the immunoglobulin available in the blood, they are essential in providing immunity.

Adaptive antibody production

Adaptive antibody production service happens after an antigen binds to the B-cell receptor of B2 Lymphocytes. During the process, the adaptive nature of the production process comprises primary immune responses such as cell-mediated and humoral immune responses.

The adaptive immune response is activated when an antigen is presented to the innate immune system, and the natural antibodies cannot control the infection. It creates immunological memory after the initial response to a pathogen, meaning any future encounter with the pathogen will have an enhanced response.

The adaptive antibodies are produced after an antigen binds to the B cell receptor of B lymphocytes. They provide long-lasting protection compared to natural antibodies. During the adaptive antibody production, the recurring antibodies are also developed using lymphocytes and marginal B cell zones. They are characterized by standard affinity tags, autoreactivity, and significant avidity levels.

You can achieve a cell-mediated response through T-cells and the humoral immune response through the B cells. Scientists can secrete antibodies with a similar antigen pattern on the BCR. When the antigen binds to B-cell, it initiates the secretion of specific cytokines that can cause a rapid proliferation of the B-cells. The different adaptive immune responses specific to certain antigens can lead to rapid proliferation.

Custom Antibody Service

4. Understand factors affecting antibody production

Since antibody production is a complex process, several factors can affect each stage of the production process. Several factors can affect every stage of the protein production service and influence the optimization of antibody stability. Here are the factors influencing antibody production.

Issues in expression and production

There is a greater focus on issues related to antibody expression and production. You should use low expression temperatures to improve the recombinant protein solubility. Low temperatures help slow down the cell processes, thus reducing the transcription, translation, and protein aggregation rates. Lowering the temperatures during antibody production reduces the degradation of antibody sensitivity. In contrast, high temperatures can affect protein expression services, including its translation, replication, and transcription rates.

E. Coli expression system is the most common expression host that enables quick expression and subsequent large-scale manufacturing of recombinant antigens. You can prevent aggregation and facilitate folding in E. coli protein expression service by using folding catalysts in the production. This allows encoding the target with a second protein found on the same or a separate plasmid.


Aggregation is one of the significant factors affecting custom peptide synthesis. It interferes with the stability during custom protein production procedures. An antibody aggregation can lead to low yield and affects biological formations. It can also enhance immunogenic responses that create antibody precipitation. The antigens can aggregate during antibody production due to multiple chemical interactions


Proteolysis in protein production services materializes in both the plant and mammalian host cells. It involves the breakdown of proteins into smaller polypeptides or amino acids. The success of this process requires using relatively small molecules as vectors to ensure the convenience of manipulation. Fragmentation can affect the antibody product quality and yield. Any minor fragmentation can affect the whole antibody production by creating proteolytic cleavages.

Antibody sequencing services

Antibody sequencing services have Monoclonal antibodies containing variables and constant light and heavy chain domains. These variables are more stable than any other fragment, which makes it easy to administer. Glycans can help in protein folding and stabilize a specific system while protecting against aggregation.

Post-translational attachment

Post-translational modifications are chemical modifications that play a role in functional proteomics. You may need to reduce the rate of translation and transcription to facilitate folding. Reducing these rates allows the newly synthesized proteins to fold before they aggregate.

5. Know how to improve antibody production

The best way to improve antibody production is to create highly prudent cell lines. There are different approaches you can use to avoid low-yielding production.

Maintain sample integrity

A meaningful way to prevent issues with antibody production is to maintain sample integrity. Any improper storage of samples in facilities or during shipping can cause temperature fluctuations and affect the process. Once the cells start to deteriorate, they can affect antibody production by altering the cell metabolism. Since stressed cells can hamper antibody production, ensure the samples are not contaminated. It starts with maintaining optimal temperature during sample shipment.

Verify documents for higher returns

You should capture every data and essential document during antibody production. The documentation allows you to verify that the selected clones meet experiment expectations. Document verification is necessary because political systems don't always perform as anticipated. Ensure you capture the necessary documentation and verify that the clones meet expectations. It will help avoid downstream issues during antibody production and keep your timelines on track.

Promote downstream production

Some cell lines may become valuable and evaluated for commercial potential during antibody production. However, don't create cells rapidly, as it can compromise the yield—the best way to exercise patience in the laboratory and allow time for the cells to develop.

Monitor the attributes of your partners

You may need partners to assist in antibody development. Before partnering with anyone, ensure you understand their attributes, including their history, capacity, and flexibility. Only partner with an organization that has a proven track record. Peptide synthesis companies can have suitable quality SOPs and assurance controls. Ask for any documents that can demonstrate their ability to ensure product consistency.

Build strong communication with the partners

After selecting a developmental partner, share information with them upfront, informing them of the ultimate goal for the product. Timely and effective communication is essential to deal with any issues. Work with a reliable and trusted partner with experience in antibody production. They can help you make important decisions, such as the antibody type to use in any procedure.

Custom Antibody Services

Bottom line

Antibodies are proteins made in response to an infection. Due to their high specificity and binding affinity have become essential tools for research and diagnostic purposes. The advancement in biotechnology means gene synthesis companies can produce custom antibodies in a laboratory for different purposes.

Custom antibody production will always have challenges in the modern age of biosciences. We have discussed the different factors that can affect antibody production. You need a Proactive strategy to avoid the common pitfalls and enhance your chances of success. In this guide, we have discussed factors that affect custom gene synthesis.

Factors like rising research activities in biology and life sciences alongside the growing collaboration between academic centers and Industry leaders are essential in developing the global customer antibody markets. When planning to produce antibodies in laboratories, there are some critical factors to consider. They include using the correct antibodies, choosing the best production procedure, and working with a trusted partner.

Subscribe to Receive Updates & Promotions from Biomatik